BOOST C++: CRC library - header <boost/crc.hpp>

The header <boost/crc.hpp> supplies two class templates in namespace boost. These templates define objects that can compute the CRC, or cyclic redundancy code (or check), of a given stream of data. The header also supplies function templates to compute a CRC in one step.

Contents

  1. Contents
  2. Header Synopsis
  3. Rationale
  4. Background
  5. Theoretical CRC Computer
  6. Optimized CRC Computer
  7. Computer Usage
  8. CRC Function
  9. Augmented-CRC Functions
  10. Pre-Defined CRC Samples
  11. References
  12. Credits

Header Synopsis

#include <boost/integer.hpp>  // for boost::uint_t
#include <cstddef>            // for std::size_t

namespace boost
{

template < std::size_t Bits >
    class crc_basic;

template < std::size_t Bits, impl_def TruncPoly = 0u,
           impl_def InitRem = 0u,
           impl_def FinalXor = 0u, bool ReflectIn = false,
           bool ReflectRem = false >
    class crc_optimal;

template < std::size_t Bits, impl_def TruncPoly,
           impl_def InitRem, impl_def FinalXor,
           bool ReflectIn, bool ReflectRem >
    typename uint_t<Bits>::fast  crc( void const *buffer,
     std::size_t byte_count );

template < std::size_t Bits, impl_def TruncPoly >
    typename uint_t<Bits>::fast  augmented_crc( void const *buffer,
     std::size_t byte_count,
     typename uint_t<Bits>::fast initial_remainder );

template < std::size_t Bits, impl_def TruncPoly >
    typename uint_t<Bits>::fast  augmented_crc( void const *buffer,
     std::size_t byte_count );

typedef crc_optimal<16, 0x8005, 0, 0, true, true>         crc_16_type;
typedef crc_optimal<16, 0x1021, 0xFFFF, 0, false, false>  crc_ccitt_type;
typedef crc_optimal<16, 0x8408, 0, 0, true, true>         crc_xmodem_type;

typedef crc_optimal<32, 0x04C11DB7, 0xFFFFFFFF, 0xFFFFFFFF, true, true>
  crc_32_type;

}

The implementation-defined type impl_def stands for the quickest-to-manipulate built-in unsigned integral type that can represent at least Bits bits.

Rationale

A common error detection technique, especially with electronic communications, is an appended checksum. The transmitter sends its data bits, followed by the bits of the checksum. The checksum is based on operations done on the data bit stream. The receiver applies the same operations on the bits it gets, and then gets the checksum. If the computed checksum doesn't match the received checksum, then an error ocurred in the transmission. There is the slight chance that the error is only in the checksum, and an actually-correct data stream is rejected. There is also the chance of an error occurring that does not change the checksum, making that error invisible. CRC is a common checksum type, used for error detection for hardware interfaces and encoding formats.

Background

CRCs work by computing the remainder of a modulo-2 polynominal division. The message is treated as the (binary) coefficents of a long polynominal for the dividend, with the earlier bits of the message fed first as the polynominal's highest coefficents. A particular CRC algorithm has another polynominal associated with it to be used as the divisor. The quotient is ignored. The remainder of the division considered the checksum. However, the division uses modulo-2 rules (no carries) for the coefficents.

See A Painless Guide to CRC Error Detection Algorithms for complete information. A clearer guide is at the Easier Said Than Done web page.

CRC Parameters

Truncated polynominal

The divisor polynominal has a degree one bit larger than the checksum (remainder) size. That highest bit is always one, so it is ignored when describing a particular CRC type. Excluding this bit makes the divisor fit in the same data type as the checksum.

Initial remainder

The interim CRC remainder changes as each bit is processed. Usually, the interim remainder starts at zero, but some CRCs use a different initial value to avoid "blind spots." A blind spot is when a common sequence of message bits does not change certain interim remainder values.

Final XOR value

A CRC remainder can be combined with a defined value, via a bitwise exclusive-or operation, before being returned to the user. The value is usually zero, meaning the interim remainder is returned unchanged. The other common value is an all-ones value, meaning that the bitwise complement of the interim remainder is returned.

Reflected input

A message's bits are usually fed a byte at a time, with the highest bits of the byte treated as the higher bits of the dividend polynominal. Some CRCs reflect the bits (about the byte's center, so the first and last bits are switched, etc.) before feeding.

Reflected (remainder) output

Some CRCs return the reflection of the interim remainder (taking place before the final XOR value stage).

Theoretical CRC Computer

template < std::size_t Bits >
class boost::crc_basic
{
public:
    // Type
    typedef implementation_defined  value_type;

    // Constant reflecting template parameter
    static  std::size_t const  bit_count = Bits;

    // Constructor
    explicit  crc_basic( value_type truncated_polynominal,
               value_type initial_remainder = 0, value_type final_xor_value = 0,
               bool reflect_input = false, bool reflect_remainder = false );

    // Internal Operations
    value_type  get_truncated_polynominal() const;
    value_type  get_initial_remainder() const;
    value_type  get_final_xor_value() const;
    bool        get_reflect_input() const;
    bool        get_reflect_remainder() const;

    value_type  get_interim_remainder() const;
    void        reset( value_type new_rem );
    void        reset();

    // External Operations
    void  process_bit( bool bit );
    void  process_bits( unsigned char bits, std::size_t bit_count );
    void  process_byte( unsigned char byte );
    void  process_block( void const *bytes_begin, void const *bytes_end );
    void  process_bytes( void const *buffer, std::size_t byte_count );

    value_type  checksum() const;

};

The value_type is the smallest built-in type that can hold the specified (by Bits) number of bits. This should be boost::uint_t<Bits>::least, see the documentation for integer type selection for details.

This implementation is slow since it computes its CRC the same way as in theory, bit by bit. No optimizations are performed. It wastes space since most of the CRC parameters are specified at run-time as constructor parameters.

Optimized CRC Computer

template < std::size_t Bits, impl_def TruncPoly,
           impl_def InitRem, impl_def FinalXor,
           bool ReflectIn, bool ReflectRem >
class boost::crc_optimal
{
public:
    // Type
    typedef implementation_defined  value_type;

    // Constants reflecting template parameters
    static  std::size_t const  bit_count = Bits;
    static  value_type const   truncated_polynominal = TruncPoly;
    static  value_type const   initial_remainder = InitRem;
    static  value_type const   final_xor_value = FinalXor;
    static  bool const         reflect_input = ReflectIn;
    static  bool const         reflect_remainder = ReflectRem;

    // Constructor
    explicit  crc_optimal( value_type init_rem = InitRem );

    // Internal Operations
    value_type  get_truncated_polynominal() const;
    value_type  get_initial_remainder() const;
    value_type  get_final_xor_value() const;
    bool        get_reflect_input() const;
    bool        get_reflect_remainder() const;

    value_type  get_interim_remainder() const;
    void        reset( value_type new_rem = InitRem );

    // External Operations
    void  process_byte( unsigned char byte );
    void  process_block( void const *bytes_begin, void const *bytes_end );
    void  process_bytes( void const *buffer, std::size_t byte_count );

    value_type  checksum() const;

    // Operators
    void        operator ()( unsigned char byte );
    value_type  operator ()() const;

};

The value_type is the quickest-to-manipulate built-in type that can hold at least the specified (by Bits) number of bits. This should be boost::uint_t<Bits>::fast. See the integer type selection documentation for details. The TruncPoly, InitRem, and FinalXor template parameters also are of this type.

This implementation is fast since it uses as many optimizations as practical. All of the CRC parameters are specified at compile-time as template parameters. No individual bits are considered; only whole bytes are passed. A table of interim CRC values versus byte values is pre-computed when the first object using a particular bit size, truncated polynominal, and input reflection state is processed.

Computer Usage

The two class templates have different policies on where the CRC's parameters go. Both class templates use the number of bits in the CRC as the first template parameter. The theoretical computer class template has the bit count as its only template parameter, all the other CRC parameters are entered through the constructor. The optimized computer class template obtains all its CRC parameters as template parameters, and instantiated objects are usually default-constructed.

The CRC parameters can be inspected at run-time with the following member functions: get_truncated_polynominal, get_initial_remainder, get_final_xor_value, get_reflect_input, and get_reflect_remainder. The fast computer also provides compile-time constants for its CRC parameters.

The get_interim_remainder member function returns the internal state of the CRC remainder. It represents the unreflected remainder of the last division. Saving an interim remainder allows the freezing of CRC processing, as long as the other CRC parameters and the current position of the bit stream are saved. Restarting a frozen stream involves constructing a new computer with the most of the old computer's parameters. The only change is to use the frozen remainder as the new computer's initial remainder. Then the interrupted bit stream can be fed as if nothing happened. The fast CRC computer has a special constructor that takes one argument, an interim remainder, for this purpose (overriding the initial remainder CRC parameter).

The reset member functions reset the internal state of the CRC remainder to the given value. If no value is given, then the internal remainder is set to the initial remainder value when the object was created. The remainder must be unreflected. When a CRC calculation is finished, calling reset lets the object be reused for a new session.

After any construction, both CRC computers work the same way. Feeding new data to a computer is in a seperate operation(s) from extracting the current CRC value from the computer. The following table lists the feeding and extracting operations.

Regular CRC Operations

Operation Description
void process_bit( bool bit ); Feeds the single bit to the computer, updating the interim CRC. It is only defined for the slow CRC computer.
void process_bits( unsigned char bits, std::size_t bit_count ); Acts as applying process_bit to the lowest bit_count bits given in bits, most significant relevant bit first. The results are undefined if bit_count exceeds the number of bits per byte. It is only defined for the slow CRC computer.
void process_byte( unsigned char byte ); Acts as applying process_bit to the all the bits in byte. If reflection is not desired, the bits are fed from the most to least significant. The bits are fed in the opposite order if reflection is desired.
void process_block( void const *bytes_begin, void const *bytes_end ); Acts as applying process_byte to each byte in the given memory block. This memory block starts at bytes_begin and finishes before bytes_end. The bytes are processed in that order.
void process_bytes( void const *buffer, std::size_t byte_count ); Acts as applying process_byte to each byte in the given memory block. This memory block starts at buffer and lasts for byte_count bytes. The bytes are processed in ascending order.
value_type checksum() const; Returns the CRC checksum of the data passed in so far, possibly after applying the remainder-reflection and exclusive-or operations.
void operator ()( unsigned char byte ); Calls process_byte. This member function lets its object act as a (stateful) function object. It is only defined for the fast CRC computer.
value_type operator ()() const; Calls checksum. This member function lets its object act as a generator function object. It is only defined for the fast CRC computer.

You can use them like this:

#include <boost/crc.hpp>      // for boost::crc_basic, boost::crc_optimal
#include <boost/cstdint.hpp>  // for boost::uint16_t

#include <algorithm>  // for std::for_each
#include <cassert>    // for assert
#include <cstddef>    // for std::size_t
#include <iostream>   // for std::cout
#include <ostream>    // for std::endl


// Main function
int
main ()
{
    // This is "123456789" in ASCII
    unsigned char const  data[] = { 0x31, 0x32, 0x33, 0x34, 0x35, 0x36, 0x37,
     0x38, 0x39 };
    std::size_t const    data_len = sizeof( data ) / sizeof( data[0] );

    // The expected CRC for the given data
    boost::uint16_t const  expected = 0x29B1;

    // Simulate CRC-CCITT
    boost::crc_basic<16>  crc_ccitt1( 0x1021, 0xFFFF, 0, false, false );
    crc_ccitt1.process_bytes( data, data_len );
    assert( crc_ccitt1.checksum() == expected );

    // Repeat with the optimal version (assuming a 16-bit type exists)
    boost::crc_optimal<16, 0x1021, 0xFFFF, 0, false, false>  crc_ccitt2;
    crc_ccitt2 = std::for_each( data, data + data_len, crc_ccitt2 );
    assert( crc_ccitt2() == expected );

    std::cout << "All tests passed." << std::endl;
    return 0;
}

CRC Function

template < std::size_t Bits, impl_def TruncPoly,
 impl_def InitRem, impl_def FinalXor,
 bool ReflectIn, bool ReflectRem >
typename boost::uint_t<Bits>::fast
boost::crc( void const *buffer, std::size_t byte_count );

The boost::crc function template computes the CRC of a given data block. The data block starts at the address given by buffer and lasts for byte_count bytes. The CRC parameters are passed through template arguments, identical to the optimized CRC computer (see above). In fact, such a computer is used to implement this function.

Augmented-CRC Functions

template < std::size_t Bits, impl_def TruncPoly >
typename boost::uint_t<Bits>::fast
boost::augmented_crc( void const *buffer, std::size_t byte_count,
 typename boost::uint_t<Bits>::fast initial_remainder );

template < std::size_t Bits, impl_def TruncPoly >
typename boost::uint_t<Bits>::fast
boost::augmented_crc( void const *buffer, std::size_t byte_count );

All the other CRC-computing function or class templates work assuming that the division steps start immediately on the first message bits. The two boost::augmented_crc function templates have a different division order. Instead of combining (via bitwise exclusive-or) the current message bit with the highest bit of a separate remainder, these templates shift a new message bit into the low bit of a remainder register as the highest bit is shifted out. The new method means that the bits in the inital remainder value are processed before any of the actual message bits are processed. To compensate, the real CRC can only be extracted after feeding enough zero bits (the same count as the register size) after the message bits.

The template parameters of both versions of the function template are the CRC's bit size (Bits) and the truncated polynominal (TruncPoly). The version of the function template that takes two arguments calls the three-argument version with the initial_remainder parameter filled as zero. Both versions work on the data block starting at the address buffer for byte_count bytes.

These function templates are useful if the bytes of the CRC directly follow the message's bytes. First, set the bytes of where the CRC will go to zero. Then use augmented_crc over the augmented message, i.e. the message bytes and the appended CRC bytes. Then assign the result to the CRC. To later check a received message, either use augmented_crc (with the same parameters as transmission, of course) on the received unaugmented message and check if the result equals the CRC, or use augmented_crc on the received augmented message and check if the result equals zero. Note that the CRC has to be stored with the more-significant bytes first (big-endian).

Interruptions in the CRC data can be handled by feeding the result of augmented_crc of the previous data block as the initial_remainder when calling augmented_crc on the next data block. Remember that the actual CRC can only be determined after feeding the augmented bytes. Since this method uses modulo-2 polynominal division at its most raw, neither final XOR values nor reflection can be used.

Note that for the same CRC system, the initial remainder for augmented message method will be different than for the unaugmented message method. The main exception is zero; if the augmented-CRC algorithm uses a zero initial remainder, the equivalent unaugmented-CRC algorithm will also use a zero initial remainder. Given an initial remainder for a augmented-CRC algorithm, the result from processing just zero-valued CRC bytes without any message bytes is the equivalent inital remainder for the unaugmented-CRC algorithm. An example follows:

#include <boost/crc.hpp>      // for boost::crc_basic, boost::augmented_crc
#include <boost/cstdint.hpp>  // for boost::uint16_t

#include <cassert>    // for assert
#include <iostream>   // for std::cout
#include <ostream>    // for std::endl


// Main function
int
main ()
{
    using boost::uint16_t;
    using boost::augmented_crc;

    uint16_t        data[6] = { 2, 4, 31, 67, 98, 0 };
    uint16_t const  init_rem = 0x123;

    uint16_t  crc1 = augmented_crc<16, 0x8005>( data, sizeof(data), init_rem );

    uint16_t const  zero = 0;
    uint16_t const  new_init_rem = augmented_crc<16, 0x8005>( &zero, sizeof(zero) );

    boost::crc_basic<16>  crc2( 0x8005, new_init_rem );
    crc2.process_block( data, &data[5] );  // don't include CRC
    assert( crc2.checksum() == crc1 );

    std::cout << "All tests passed." << std::endl;
    return 0;
}

Pre-Defined CRC Samples

Four sample CRC types are given, representing several common CRC algorithms. For example, computations from boost::crc_32_type can be used for implementing the PKZip standard. Note that, in general, this library is concerned with CRC implementation, and not with determining "good" sets of CRC parameters.

Common CRCs

Algorithm Example Protocols
crc_16_type BISYNCH, ARC
crc_ccitt_type designated by CCITT (Comité Consultatif International Télégraphique et Téléphonique)
crc_xmodem_type XMODEM
crc_32_type PKZip, AUTODIN II, Ethernet, FDDI

References

Credits

Contributors

Michael Barr (mbarr@netrino.com)

Wrote Easier Said Than Done, a less-confusing guide to implementing CRC algorithms. (Originally published as "Slow and Steady Never Lost the Race" in the January 2000 issue of Embedded Systems Programming, pages 37–46.)

Daryle Walker

Started the library and contributed the theoretical and optimal CRC computation class templates and the CRC computing function template. Contributed crc_test.cpp and crc_example.cpp.

Ross N. Williams

Wrote A Painless Guide to CRC Error Detection Algorithms, a definitive source of CRC information.

  1. Acknowledgements

For giving advice on compiler/C++ compliance, implementation, interface, algorithms, and bug reports:

History

15 Jun 2003, Daryle Walker

Added example program.

14 May 2001, Daryle Walker

Initial version.


Revised: 15 June 2003

Copyright 2001, 2003 Daryle Walker. Use, modification, and distribution are subject to the Boost Software License, Version 1.0. (See accompanying file LICENSE_1_0.txt or a copy at <http://www.boost.org/LICENSE_1_0.txt>.)

библиотека BOOST C++ http://www.boost.org
перевод Elijah Koziev www.solarix.ru

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